Guide Dropouts

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Interrupted-enrollment survey respondents experienced these three types of events with significantly greater frequency than continuously-enrolled high school students. In addition to these experiences of violence, young people often found themselves in the role of caregiver or wage-earner because a parent became ill. The presence or absence of these connections drove many of the choices that young people made, including about school attendance and completion.

Estimating the costs

Both qualitative and quantitative findings suggest that several different types of life experiences may contribute to feeling a lack of connection; that young people sought connection where it was offered; and that both positive and negative decisions could emerge from connectedness. Within the context of the complex circumstances described in interviews and echoed in survey data, staying engaged with school or re-engaging after a hiatus seems like an extraordinary achievement.

Bouncing back is the term we chose for the resilience we observed. Overall, we found that young people who left school have strengths that enable them to cope in difficult contexts. Despite their many strengths, the young people we interviewed could not reach beyond day-to-day coping without additional support from both caring adults and connected institutions in their communities. Approaches like integrated student services and comprehensive re-engagement programs recognize the confluence of factors that can lead students out of school.

Eventually, I found this place, [program], and I feel like this a great school system. Some young people named a peer or an outreach worker as the impetus for positive change in their lives. Just as they followed their neighborhood peers into negative behavior patterns, these young people also followed their peers to make a positive change in their lives.

My friends are the only reason why I'm here. Despite the challenges they faced, the young people in our interrupted-enrollment survey sample were overwhelmingly on a path to reaching up. Almost half were employed either full- or part-time.

Dropouts from higher education: An interdisciplinary review and synthesis | SpringerLink

Students who leave school before graduating are stronger than popular opinion and current research literature describe. These strengths could, with the right supports, allow them to stay in school; and these abilities do, ultimately, help many to re-engage.

On the whole, the young people who participated in interviews or responded to the survey display enormous strengths including personal agency, problem-solving, and positive life goals. These characteristics enabled young people to re-engage in their education. These same qualities could also have enabled them to stay in school if adults at home, at school, and in the com- munity had helped them navigate around barriers so that consistent school attendance aligned with their life circumstances.

Students who leave school before graduating are often struggling with overwhelming life circumstances that push school attendance far down their priority lists. Students leave school not because of a particular event or factor, but because circumstances accumulate in ways that push school further and further down their list of priorities. The reasons they cite for dropping out are the breaking point, the end of the story rather than the whole story. Early attention from every available adult — extended family members, school professionals, youth workers, religious leaders, neighbors, and others to specific events such as the death of a family member, parent incarceration, changing schools, or homelessness could slow the rate at which a cluster of events pushes or pulls a student out of school.

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Young people who leave high school need fewer easy exits from the classroom and more easy on-ramps back into education. Some young people who stop going to school find it easier to leave school than to stay in or get back in. In other words, there are too many off-ramps and exits that are too easy to take, and too few on-ramps that are too hard to access. Asking teachers, parents, and students to examine the formal policies related to both leaving and re-entry could point out specific ways to help students stay in school or create opportunities for them to re- engage more easily.

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Young people who leave high school emphasize how much peers, parents, and other adults matter. Caring connections that follow students from home, through their neighborhood, to the school building are important. However, caring is not enough.

The young people who are experiencing multiple adverse events in their lives need caring combined with connections to people and places that help them solve problems that get in the way of school achievement. Everyone — teacher, school administrator, bus driver, clergy, program leader, parent, grandparent, business owner — can make a difference by listening to what young people are experiencing at and outside school.

While teachers, counselors, and administrators in high-need schools are often overwhelmed themselves, attentive school leadership, community oversight of graduation patterns, and greater support for an environment that encourages positive connections could all be counterweights to the lack of consistent support that young people say they often encounter from the adults closest to them. Our overriding recommendation relates to the impor- tance of listening to young people.

Too often, what we think we know stands in the way of knowing what is true for young people who have left school. Take time to understand the circumstances affecting young people who have already stopped attending school or who have recently re-engaged after interrupting their education. Include their voices in discussions about policies, pro- grams, and community activities that affect their lives.

Surround the highest-need young people with extra supports.

Dropout Rates in Oregon High Schools

The Everyone Graduates Center at Johns Hopkins University has developed school-based early warning systems that allow educators to identify students whose attendance, behavior, and course performance suggest that they need extra support to stay in school. We recommend that communities consider how to create similar early-warning supports and systems beyond the school building for young people who are affected by risk factors like a death in the family, an incarcerated parent, housing instability, or shifting from school to school.

Create a cadre of community navigators to help students stay in school. Follow the evidence.

College Life

It is essential to identify, support, and spread proven and promising approaches — not just programs, but methods that have worked in one place and could work elsewhere. Place young people in central roles in designing and implementing solutions that will work for their peers. Research confirms that peer influence matters. The following versions of the report are available for download and the video is available for embed via YouTube:. The study utilized an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design. Mixed-methods designs recognize that not all research questions can be answered using a single formulation of data.

An exploratory design is most applicable where not enough is known about a given phenomenon to develop theories or hypotheses with confidence e. The subsequent online survey — whose development was informed by the interview data — was conducted with 1, young people 18 to 25 years-old who had left school, as well as a sample of 1, young people who had graduated without interruption. Note: All quotes are from a single individual, referred to by an alias. The most immediate effect a high school dropout sees is in his wallet.

Without a high school diploma, dropouts are not eligible for 90 percent of jobs in the United States, says Sanchez.

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In earning less money, dropouts not only consume less but also produce less taxable income for the government. One of the greatest impacts dropouts impose on the national economy is seen in government assistance in welfare and health care. Because they are earning less in wages, high school dropouts are 2. Highly skilled individuals are needed for the United States to remain competitive in a global economy.

Dropouts lack many critical skills acquired by their peers who completed high school, and especially those who completed college.


This includes basic and advanced computer skills, higher-level reasoning and the ability to analyze data. Employers not only look to see that their employees possess these skills, but they want certification in a high school or college diploma. According to the American Civil Liberties Union ACLU , many schools maintain zero-tolerance policies, which automatically impose expulsion and suspension on students despite the circumstances of their offenses at school.

These policies, which are more likely to affect children of color, push students out of the classroom and into the juvenile justice system. The lack of support and opportunity that a high school diploma provides often leads many of these youths to a life of crime.